Christian mosaic art also flourished in Rome, gradually declining as conditions became more difficult in the . 5th century mosaics can be found over the triumphal arch and in the nave of the basilica of . The 27 surviving panels of the nave are the most important mosaic cycle in Rome of this period. Two other important 5th century mosaics are lost but we know them from 17th-century drawings. In the apse mosaic of (462–472, destroyed in 1589) Christ was seated on a globe with the twelve Apostles flanking him, six on either side. At (468–483, destroyed in 1686) Christ appeared in the center, flanked on either side by three Apostles. Four streams flowed from the little mountain supporting Christ. The original 5th-century apse mosaic of the was replaced by a very similar fresco by in 1559. The composition probably remained unchanged: Christ flanked by male and female saints, seated on a hill while lambs drinking from a stream at its feet. All three mosaics had a similar iconography.
The single most important piece of Byzantine Christian mosaic art in the East is the , made between 542 and 570 as the floor of the church of Saint George at , . It was rediscovered in 1894. The Madaba Map is the oldest surviving cartographic depiction of the . It depicts an area from in the north to the in the south, and from the in the west to the . The largest and most detailed element of the topographic depiction is , at the center of the map. The map is enriched with many naturalistic features, like animals, fishing boats, bridges and palm trees
used mosaic technique to decorate religious buildings and palaces after the of the eastern provinces of the . In and the Arabs were influenced by the great tradition of Roman and Early Christian mosaic art. During the mosaic making remained a flourishing art form in Islamic culture and it is continued in the art of and in various parts of the Arab world, although was to become the main Islamic form of wall decoration.